2 types of development
- Learning (nurture) -- environmental influences
- Maturation (nature) -- genetic/biological influences
Critical Periods: early development periods during which particular experiences are essential.
Stages: organization of behaviors/thoughts during particular early periods of development defined by relatively abrupt change.
- Infant stage: baby born with reflexes (automatic behavior: startle, sucking). Vision nearsighted, interested in novelty. Smiles at 4-6 weeks in response to faces. Rhythmic "conversations".
- Adolescence: more myelination of the frontal lobes may allow for improved self control. Biological development - increased hormones, sex organs develop, growth spurt. Intellectual - formal operational (abstract reasoning), independence, questioning.
- Aging: older adults experience decline in short-term memory and attention. Transition theories - unanticipated, anticipated, non event, chronic hassle. Major Milestones - starting out, marriage or living alone, parenthood, empty nest, midlife crisis, retirement widowhood.
Social Development: Developing how we relate to others
Attachment: emotional connection between infant and caregiver
- Harlow's monkey studies: showed the fear of unknown fosters attachment. Monkeys preferred soft, cuddly surrogates even if they did not have food. Monkeys raised w/o mothers were socially incompetent, aggressive and unable to raise their own babies.
3 styles of Attachment (Ainsworth)
- Secure - warm relationship, baby does not fear abandonment
- Resistant - close relationship, but baby fears abandonment
- Avoidant - distant relationship, baby/child indifferent to whether mother is present
Socialization: process by which one acquires the patterns of behavior of their society.
Parenting Styles: (parents are one source of socialization)
- Autocratic: parents strict, rigid, require obedience and conformity
- Authoritative: reciprocal (most effective): parents are firm but fair, make & enforce rules, allow questions and encouraged appropriate independence
- Permissive: parents do not make rules or enforce them
More to come!
Adapted from Bar Charts Quick Study Academic: Psychology and Sparkcharts Psychology.